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A vocabulary is said to be a new word. That is, any word or a piece of writing that is new to the reader is a vocabulary. Consider the following example:

Bade’s life is fleeting.

In the sentence above, the word that may be new to the reader is fleeting. Fleeting is, therefore, a vocabulary. In other words, vocabulary is seen as a difficult word. Any word that is not easy to understand in pieces of writing is also a vocabulary. Consider the following example:

That is a gormless statement.

The only word in the sentence that is not easy to understand is gormless. Gormless is, therefore, a vocabulary.

[Dry] as an Adjective (1)

It implies ‘not wet’ ‘damp or sticky,’ without water or moisture. Examine this example:

(i)         My shirt is dry now.

‘Dry’ here functions as the predicative adjectives now that it occurs after the auxiliary verb is. It means ‘not wet’ again.

[Dry] as an Adjective (2)

This means ‘cleverness’ and expressions in a quiet way that seems not obvious. It is humorous that a speaker may utter a statement in a clever way. Examine the following example:

(i)         The secretary is diligent with a dry sense of duty.

‘Dry’ in this case is an attributive adjective modifying the noun (sense). It means that the secretary has no sense of duty though s/he is diligent.

[Dry] as an Adjective (3)

‘Dry’ here suggests ‘not interesting’, ‘boring’ or ‘lively.’ Examine this example:

(i)         The environment I am living is sometimes dry.

‘Dry’ in the example above is a predicative adjective since it comes after the verb. It means ‘boring’ or not ‘interesting’.

[Dry] as an Adjective (4)

It simply means ‘not showing emotions or feelings to happenings.’ Examine the example below:

(i)         You have a dry attitude to the accident occurred yesterday.

‘Dry’ in the example above functions as an attribute adjective, modifying the noun (attitude). It means ‘not showing a good or humanely attitude to the accident occurred yesterday.


[Dry] as a Verb

‘Dry’ as a verb suggests simply to become dry or to make something dry. Examine the following examples:

(i)         Obina, you can use this rag to ‘dry’ your hands.

(ii)        If I get home, I will ‘dry’ the plates I washed.

Dry in the sentence (i) is used as the non finite verb to dry. In the sentence (ii), dry is used as the future verb form will dry.

[Floor] as a Noun

Floor as a noun is the surface of something like room, etc. Study these sentences:

(i)         All the pupils sat on the floor.

(ii)        My mother is mopping the floor.

In the example (i), floor functions as the head word in the prepositional phrase on the floor of the sentence. In the example (ii) the floor functions as an object of the sentence. So, they are nouns.

[Floor] as a Verb

Here, it means to ‘surprise’ or ‘confuse’ somebody so that they are not sure of what to say or do. Study the following sentences:

(i)         Your advice floored me completely.

(ii)        I was totally floored by my students’ success at the debate yesterday.

In the example (i), floored is a verb since it performs the action of the sentence. it means simply ‘confused’. In the example (ii), floored is used as a passive verb form which simply means ‘surprised’.

[Chicken] as a Noun

It is a large bird which often keeps its egg or meat. Study the examples below:

(i)         My chickens are caged in the poultry.

Chicken is a noun since it functions as the head word in the noun phrase – my chickens of the sentence.

[Chicken] as a Verb

Chicken as a verb means ‘to decide not to so something because you are afraid.’ Let’s study these examples carefully:

(i)         I chicken out my journey because of acts of robbery attack on the expressway.

(ii)        The man chicken out to marry because he is afraid of responsibility.


Chicken out in the two sentences above is used as a verb. It performs the action in the sentences it occurs. It also implies ‘decide not to’.

[Absorb] as a Verb (1)

Absorb here simply implies ‘take in.’ Study the example below:

(i)         A university should at least absorb five hundred students annually.

Absorb means ‘take in’ five hundred students annually.

[Absorb] as a Verb (2)

Absorb as a verb also implies ‘to deceive’. Let us study the following example:

(i)         I was totally absorbed by the advert of peak milk.

Here the absorbed means ‘deceived’.

[Accent] as a Noun

This is a way of pronouncing the words of a language that shows which country, area or social class a person comes from. Consider the following example:

(i)         My father often speaks Ibarapa accent.

Accent as a noun may also imply a dialect.

[Accent] as a Verb

In the case of a verb, accent suggests ‘to emphasize a part of something.’ Consider the example below:

(i)         The teacher accents the aspect of verbs in parts of speech.

Accents here is used as a verb and it means ‘emphasizes’.

 [Accord] as a Noun

It simply means ‘agreement’ or ‘concord’. Look at these examples:

(i)         There must be true accord between husband and wife.

(ii)        All Nigerians should be in one accord.

Accord in the example (i) is modified by the adjective (true) in the sentence. In the example (ii). Accord is modified by the numerical (one). Therefore, they are nouns because adjectives modify or qualify nouns.

[Accord] as a Verb (1)

In this case, accord connotes ‘to give something authority, status of a particular type of treatment.’ Look at the example below:

(i)         Our students have accorded great fame to school.

Accorded is used as a lexical verb that is helped by an auxiliary verb have in the sentence above.

[Accord] as a Verb (2)

It simply means ‘to agree with’. Consider the following examples:


(i)         Let my opinion accord with yours.

(ii)        It is impossible to accord with you on this matter.

In the example (i) accord is used as a lexical verb but it is used as the non-finite verb to accord in the example (ii).

[Dog] as a Noun

It is a kind of animal, having four legs and a tail. Consider this example:

(i)         I have a dog at home.

A ‘dog’ is a noun in the above sentence since it serves as the headword in the noun phrase a dog of the sentence.

[Dog] as a Verb (1)

It simply means ‘to cause trouble for a long time.’ Consider these examples:

(i)         Serious diseases dog the man often.

(ii)        The bad Nigerian education system was dogged by the government.

‘Dog’ in the sentence (i) is a verb inasmuch as it performs the action of the sentence. It means ‘cause trouble for.’ In the sentence (ii), ‘dogged’ is a passive verb form which means ‘caused’.

[Dog] as a Verb (2)

In this sense, ‘dog’ implies ‘to follow somebody closely.’ Consider these examples:

(i)         A kidnapper is dogging my younger brother’s steps.

(ii)        I am being dogged by the police to arrest me.

In the sentence (i), ‘dogging’ is the present continuous verb form and ‘dogged’ in the sentence (ii) is a passive verb form which mean (following) (followed) closely.


Deola Adelakun





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