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Writing ingredients are the making of letters or symbols to form words with a pen, pencil, or any writing tool to communicate or to pass information.

It is the production of any readable account or the production of letters in words or symbols with any writing tool.

Writing is an exercise of the brain and the hand. It is the inscription of any message not in verbal form. The first stage of writing skills is handwriting.


Handwriting is the use of man’s brain to create and put down the created message in letters on paper or chalkboard or any substance designed for writing.

Writing exercise in language studies deals with the formation and writing of words, sentences, paragraph, and passages.

Writing leads to composition as reading leads to comprehension. Simple composition or essay develops pupils to write long essays, dissertations, short and long stories, drama, and poems. In advanced studies, we have creative writing.

Creative writing

Creative writing is an area in language studies that develop pupils to write any genre of literature-prose drama and poetry.

Pupils develop their writing skills from handwriting where they practice copying from the chalkboard.

This is stretched forward and strengthened by the pupil’s involvement or pupil’s practical exercise in dictation where they strengthen their knowledge of the spelling of words and the orthography in general.

Writing in a sentence, he is developed into writing in paragraphs and further to writing in complete passages.

Composition writing

In composition lessons, pupils are taught in the lower primary classes to write in sentences to describe or narrate or give the exposition of any product.

Composition aids the pupils thinking and writing. It develops their writing skill. In language studies, pupils are to be taught writing of letters in their lower primary classes-primaries 1 and 2 they later engage in primary 3 writing sentences dictation and composition.


This is the breaking down of the subject matter into points that are arranged in order. The main ideas are got and they are developed with points that will later form the whole structure.

In outlining one has to put in mind that one idea is not superior to the other nor one point is greater than the other. This notwithstanding one should watch out for which ideas should be developed first.

In a descriptive essay such as pupils should be taught how to think about relevant ideas and how to arrange them in logical and sequential order pupils in primary classes iii and iv should usually write in sentences, one sentence developing one idea-should be led to arranging their sentences in sequential order.

They should be guided to develop their ideas with sentences in a logical and sequential order.

Pupils in primary classes v and vi should be encouraged to write in paragraphs. This implies they are expected to write longer than pupils in lower primary classes and they are to describe their ideas with more than one sentence.


A paragraph is a distinct facet of a letter or composition or any writing document. It could be a distinct facet of a page in a book. It is a group of sentences developing the same idea in a composition.

Outlining caters to slicing the subject matter into ideas and the paragraph develops the ideas with points found in the sentences.

Paragraphing, therefore, is the making of distinct parts of a letter or composition or a piece of writing it is the ability to develop the parts of whole writing with several sentences.


This is the skill of writing that deals with order lines. It is orderliness in essay writing or writing in general.

One has to know the ideas he wants to develop and how to arrange them to ensure a proper sequence of events or involvement one has to know the point and how to arrange the points to develop the ideas correctly and in order.

In essence one has to know what each paragraph contains; one must not repeat himself in the paragraphs.

What we have in paragraph one must be different from that of paragraph two and in the subsequent paragraphs, but they must be related.  Students should be encouraged in the skill of organizing.


Coherence is the link that occurs between one paragraph and the other. There must be a link between one paragraph and the other in any writing.

The whole writing must not be disjointed. There must be a topic sentence that links one paragraph with the previous paragraph, and which summarizes the content of the teacher to instill the skill or coherence in his pupils.


Punctuation is the observation of pauses in our writing or speaking punctuation is the skill of observing pauses accurately in our writing or speaking.

This observation of pauses is made with the use of punctuation marks which include the full stop or (period) (), the colon (:), the semi-colon (;) the comma (,) the exclamation mark, (!) the question mark (?), the dash (_), the hyphen (-) the parenthesis ({!}) and the quotation marks (“)

A teacher should make sure he instills the skill of punctuation in his pupils.


Thinking is meditation. It is the use of the mind and the sense organ to find out points and develop the points on a given subject matter. It is a psychological phenomenon.

Physically a human being must be healthy to be able to think well and accurately. His mind must be free of problems.

He should learn how to be patient enough to use his sense organs to think and dig out points and develop the points with interesting sentences or dialogue, conversation, or utterances.

Pupils should be encouraged to think and given exercises that encourage them to think.



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